Given a graphical user interface (left), AdaM automatically decides which UI elements should be displayed on each device in real-time. Our optimization is designed for multi-user scenarios and considers user roles and preferences, device access restrictions and device characteristics.


Developing cross-device multi-user interfaces (UIs) is a challenging problem. There are numerous ways in which content and interactivity can be distributed. However, good solutions must consider multiple users, their roles, their preferences and access rights, as well as device capabilities. Manual and rule-based solutions are tedious to create and do not scale to larger problems nor do they adapt to dynamic changes, such as users leaving or joining an activity. In this paper, we cast the problem of UI distribution as an assignment problem and propose to solve it using combinatorial optimization. We present a mixed integer programming formulation which allows real-time applications in dynamically changing collaborative settings. It optimizes the allocation of UI elements based on device capabilities, user roles, preferences, and access rights. We present a proof-of-concept designer-in-the-loop tool, allowing for quick solution exploration. Finally, we compare our approach to traditional paper prototyping in a lab study.

Accompanying Video


We thank the ACM SIGCHI Summer School on Computational Interaction 2017 for bringing the authors together along with our study participants and the reviewers of this work. This work was supported in part by ERC Grants OPTINT (StG-2016-717054) and Computed (StG-2014-637991), SNF Grant (200021L 153644), the Aarhus University Research Foundation, the Innovation Fund Denmark (CIBIS 1311-00001B), and the Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA).

Published at

SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2018

Project Links


@inproceedings{Park:2018:AdaM, author = {Park, Seonwook and Gebhardt, Christoph and Rädle, Roman and Feit, Anna and Vrzakova, Hana and Dayama, Niraj and Yeo, Hui-Shyong and Klokmose, Clemens and Quigley, Aaron and Oulasvirta, Antti and Hilliges, Otmar}, title = {{AdaM: Adapting Multi-User Interfaces for Collaborative Environments in Real-Time}}, booktitle = {SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems}, series = {CHI '18}, year = {2018}, location = {Montréal, Canada}, publisher = {ACM}, address = {New York, NY, USA}, }